Black and Latina women are particularly at risk for being seen as angry when they fail to conform to these restrictive norms. A biologist noted that she tends to speak her mind very directly, as do her male colleagues. By now, we’ve all heard about the low numbers of American women in science, technology, engineering, and math . Some argue it’s a pipeline issue – that if we can interest more young girls in STEM subjects, the issue will resolve itself over time.
Breast cancer mortality is about 39 percent higher in Black women than in white women . Overall, breast cancer incidence among Black women is lower than among white women . However, from for women younger than 40, incidence is higher among non-Hispanic Black women than non-Hispanic white women . Over time, breast cancer incidence can become closer to incidence in the U.S.
Although women serve in top government positions, as is the case with the speaker of the House of Representatives, Nancy Pelosi, they occupy only 101, or 23 percent, of voting seats in the House. On a global scale, the country ranks 83rd in terms of female representation in national legislatures, according to the Inter-Parliamentary Union, the Geneva-based international organization of parliaments.
Additionally, since the study ended in July 2017, more research is needed to determine whether a rise in preterm births among Latina women has persisted over the last two years. Women not born in the United States typically have lower rates of preterm birth compared with women born in the US, but Gemmill added that a drop in foreign-born women still does not explain the difference in male versus female preterm births. The study involved analyzing monthly data on preterm births in the United States from January 2009 through July 2017. The data, which included 32.9 million live births total, came from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s WONDER online database.
This may explain some of the increase in breast cancer incidence among Asian American women . Among Ashkenazi Jewish women in the U.S. diagnosed with breast cancer, about 10 percent have a BRCA1/2 mutation . About 2 percent of women in the U.S. diagnosed with breast cancer have a BRCA1/2 mutation . White and black women have the highest breast cancer incidence overall . In 2018 , 63 percent of women ages 45 and older in the U.S. reported having a mammogram within the past year (ages 45-54) or past 2 years (ages 55-74) .
Hispanic workers are one of the fastest-growing populations in the labor force, yet many are still held back by structural disparities and discrimination that result in low wages and other negative labor market outcomes. In addition to overt wage discrimination, the explained portion of the wage gap is largely caused by structural barriers that reduce Latinas’ expected earnings. The largest explained causes of the white-men-to-Hispanic-women gap include the segregation of Hispanic women into lower-paying occupations and lower-paying industries and the disparity in access to education and skills training for many Hispanic women .
Age and family structure play important roles in women’s labor force participation, as well as employment opportunities. Mora and Dávila also find significant differences based on the generation of immigration. Currently, there are limited resources for Latina immigrants in the United States. As explained in Motivations of Immigration, many women come to the United States for a better education, among other factors.
Recent data from the Pew Research Center shows that 2.3 million Hispanics between the ages of 18 and 24 were enrolled in a two-year or four-year degree program in 2014; this figure represents a 13% increase since 1993. This rise in postsecondary attendance is largely attributable to the nation’s growing Hispanic population and a sharp decline in their high school dropout rate. According to the National Center of http://www.rayyan.com/what-everyone-else-does-in-regards-to-puerto-rican-girl-and-what-you-need-to-do-different/ Education Statistics, the percentage of college students who identify as Hispanic rose from 4% to 17% between 1976 and 2015. Hispanic students reached a new milestone in 2012 when, for the first time, Hispanic high school graduates enrolled in college at a higher rate than their Caucasian counterparts. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that nearly one in four college-age adults will identify as Hispanic by 2020.
Of women in the workforce with advanced degrees (master’s, professional, and doctoral degrees), Latinas earn the lowest median weekly earnings of all racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Despite discrimination in the workforce, Latina participation is on the rise. From 1970 to 2007 Latinas have seen a 14% increase in labor force participation, which the Center for American Progress calls “a notable rise.” The Hispanic paradox refers to the medical research indicating that Latino immigrants enter the United States with better health, on average, than the average American citizen, but lose this health benefit the longer they reside in the United States. It is important to note that this health paradox affects both male and female populations of Latinos.
- Of the Latinas participating in the labor force, 32.2% work in the service sector, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
- Programs like these include Casa Latina Programs, providing education on English, workers’ rights, and the consumer culture of America.
- The IWPR states that growing organizations are currently providing English tutors and access to education.
- This percentage is significantly higher than that of white women, who fall at 20%.
- Programs specifically for Latina immigrants now use an adaptation tactic of teaching, rather than an assimilation ideology to help this population adjust to American life.
- Conversely, Latinas are underrepresented in various other sectors of the labor force, particularly as business owners.
If counselors can speak Spanish, the family or client may feel more comfortable speaking with them, helping to build good rapport. If you are not fluent in Spanish, there are steps you can take to bridge this language gap, including using digital apps or going to someone who can help you learn the language. As a counselor, you might work with these clients and their families to try to get them to see eye to eye on what traditions they want to continue to uphold. The goals for counseling would be to hopefully reach a healthy and happy balance where everyone in the family is understanding of the others’ opinions. When she was growing up, it was basically expected that she would be a good person and a future wife.
The Legislative Day gives participants the opportunity to speak on behalf of their community and educate legislative staff about critical issues affecting families. For many women, this is the very first time that they go to Sacramento and meet with our legislators. Yes, the United States has come a long way since the days when women could not legally vote and were barred from legitimate employment – but the reminder of this wage gap demonstrates that our lawmakers still have much to do to ensure equality for all women in America.
In 2012, the poverty rate for Latina women overall was 27.9 percent, compared with the rate for non-Hispanic white women at 10.8 percent. The number of working-poor Latina women is more than double that of white women, at 13.58 percent, compared with 6.69 percent. According to a 2010 study, the median household wealth of single Latina women is $120, compared with single white women’s median household wealth of $41,500. Latina women make disproportionately less than their male and non-Hispanic white counterparts. These disparities are leaving a growing portion of our population more vulnerable to poverty and its implications.
As rich as the current data set is, individual interviews might have allowed for investigation of some topics at greater depth. The group setting may also have caused some participants to be less forthcoming on certain topics. For example, although all of the Latinas in this study expressed knowledge of instances of sexual harassment on the job, none acknowledged ever succumbing to unwanted advances. In addition, the two data collection sites used by this study, while widely separated geographically and contrasting sharply in terms of traditional and new settlement areas, are far from an exhaustive list all possible Latino immigrant settlement destinations.
Additionally, the baby may have an increased risk for being too large at birth and being overweight and having Type 2 diabetes in the future. A woman’s ethnicity is one of the strongest risk factors for GDM and other types of diabetes that she can’t change. Additionally, due to the high risk of diabetes in all Latino people, the risk of family members having the condition may be high as well. Diabetes of all types tends to affect Latinx people at younger ages than it does other populations, so Latinx women should talk with their physician about their risk before getting pregnant.
Census Bureau data, and greater than for Native American women, who earn 42% less than white men. Latina women earn 46% less than white men and 31% less than white women, the worst gender wage gap for any group of minority women, according to 2019 data. None of these policy interventions is a silver bullet on its own, but together they would support greater economic opportunity for Latina workers and all other workers.
Other factors may vary by state as well, such as the age and race/ethnicity of women. So, to compare breast cancer mortality , we need to look at mortality rates. To compare mortality in different populations, we need to look at mortality rates rather than the number of breast cancer deaths. So, although the number of breast cancer cases has increased over time, breast cancer rates were fairly stable. We expect the number of cases to increase over time because the population of the U.S. increases over time .
Delays in treatment or inadequate treatment could be due to language barriers, healthcare access, and cost, or to a bias on the part of the healthcare team. It is also possible that some Hispanic/Latina women might not seek care after being diagnosed with breast cancer.